Deming Cycle - PDCA

This cycle of "Plan - Do - Check - Act" is also known as the Control Circle, or PDCA.

Kaoru Ishikawa has expanded Deming's four steps into six:

  1. Determine goals and targets.
  2. Determine methods of reaching goals.
  3. Engage in education and training.
  4. Implement work.
  5. Check the effects of implementation.
  6. Take appropriate action.




  • Ishikawa. K., (Lu. D. J. trans.), 1985, What is Total Quality Control?, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.


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