4 Ps of marketing

Marketing decision variables are those variables under the firm's control that can affect the level of demand for the firm's products. They are distinguished from environmental and competitive action variables that are not totally and directly under the firm's control.


The four marketing decision variables are:


Price variables

  • Allowances and deals
  • Distribution and retailer mark-ups
  • Discount structure

Product variables

  • Quality
  • Models and sizes
  • Packaging
  • Brands
  • Service

Promotion variables

  • Advertising
  • Sales promotion
  • Personal selling
  • Publicity

Place variables

  • Channels of distribution
  • Outlet location
  • Sales territories
  • Warehousing system


  • Lilien, GL, Kotler, P., Moorthy, KS. "Marketing Models", 1992. Prentice-Hall International. Englewood Cliffs NJ.



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