Balanced Scorecard


The balanced scorecard forces managers to look at the business from four important perspectives. It links performance measures by requiring firms to address four basic questions:

(a) How do customers see us? - Customer perspective

(b) What must we excel at? - Internal perspective

(c) Can we continue to improve and create value? - Innovation & learning perspective

(d) How do we look to shareholders? - Financial perspective



  • Kaplan RS and Norton DP, "The Balanced Scorecard - Measures that drive performance", Harvard Business Review, 1992 Jan/Feb, pp71-79.
  • Kaplan RS and Norton DP. "Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work, Harvard Business Review, September-October 1993. pp134-147 (Presents a series of cases about the balanced scorecard. Also documents Kaplan and Norton's process for developing a balanced scorecard.)
  • Kaplan RS and Norton DP. "Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System". Harvard Business Review, January-February 1996 pp75-85 (Presents Kaplan and Norton's thoughts on how the balanced scorecard can be used as a strategic management system.)



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