Manufacturing Decision Areas

Hayes and Wheelwright's 10 manufacturing strategy decision areas are:


Decision area Scope
Capacity Capacity flexibility, shift patterns, temporary subcontracting policies
Facilities The size, capacity, location and focus of manufacturing resources
Production equipment Degree of automation, technology choices, configuration of equipment into lines, cells, etc., maintenance policies and the potential for developing new processes in-house
Vertical integration Strategic make versus buy, supplier policies, extent of dependence on suppliers
Human resources policies Recruitment, training and development, culture and management style
Quality systems Quality assurance and quality control policies and practice
Production planning and control Production and order, material control systems
Performance measurement Financial and non-financial performance management and linkages to recognition and reward systems
Organisation Structure, accountabilities and responsibilities
New product introduction Design for manufacture guidelines, introduction stages, organisational aspects e.g., manufacturing role in concurrent engineering



  • Hayes, Robert H., and Wheelwright, Steven C., "Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competing Through Manufacturing". New York: John Wiley, 1984.
  • Hayes, Robert H., and Wheelwright, Steven C., Clark, Kim B., "Dynamic Manufacturing". New York: The Free Press (Macmillan Inc.), 1988.


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