The Centre for Industry and Government was superseded in 2013 by the Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy




Emerging Industries – Policy and Regulation

What roles can and do governments play as new industries emerge from the science base? This project is investigating the rationales for government intervention as such industries emerge, analysing the role of regulation on the success of the emergence of new industries, and looking at the practice of government support for new industries. The project hopes to develop a better theory basis for intervention in nascent science based industries and to provide tools for policymakers to assist the successful emergence of new industries.


High Value Production: Survey of the link between production structure and company outcomes

The importance of production to company performance across various sectors has been widely debated. Recent events in financial markets have re-opened these conversations, specifically on how a balanced economy is achieved, both in terms of sectoral differences and in terms of activities across the value chain from research, through production and on to service provision.

This survey is attempting to further our understanding of when and how production structure is linked to company outcomes. By looking at how companies are structured and their outcomes (in terms of profitability and turnover growth) we hope to understand which patterns of production ownership and location provide the best returns.


Contrasting industry and government positions on modes and timing of innovation support

While the significance of innovation is recognised, the attitudes of the public and the private sector on how innovation should be supported are not well understood. There appears to be little work contrasting the attitudes of industrialists and legislators in this area at a detailed level.

To further understanding in this area the Centre for Industry and Government will survey the views of senior managers and civil servants in the UK on how support for innovation should be provided across a range of industries. The survey will help to assess how well theories of support are aligned with actual policy, as well as with the expectations and understandings of managers and legislators. The results will help inform discussions between industry and government on policy interventions.


Defining modern industrial policy frameworks

The use of industrial policy in developed economies such as the United Kingdom has gone in and out of favour over the past thirty years. There is a current resurgence in both the use of the term industrial policy and the potential for interventions which will impact the structure of industry. However the foundation for industrial policy, especially in a developed economy, has become unclear. The existing rationales based on market failure and system failure struggle to explain or guide the policy maker.

The project is developing a framework for thinking about industrial policy for leading economies, based on the maturity of a given industry in a particular country and contrasted to the maturity of that industry globally. This provides a framework for analysis which recognises the relative maturities of a number of industries in a given country as compared to the world. This will allow a more nuanced discussion on the rationales for intervention, beyond standard market failure arguments.


Investigating industrial policy development processes

There is a need to understand the process by which new industrial policy is developed. Do the established methods for the development of industrial policy work in this uncertain environment? How do various countries (such as France, the USA and China) approach the development of industrial policy?

Building on the frameworks developed for modern industrial policy, this project is looking at the existing approaches to industrial policy, as well as discussing how new models of policy development might be instituted. A key element of this work is the inclusion of futures methods (such as horizon scanning, scenario development, and roadmapping) to inform the research and as a key element of new process for industrial policy development.


CIKC: Translating emerging science into a new manufacturing industry

The continuous evolution of the practice of innovation and changing geographies of production capability and economic growth make it unclear how a new manufacturing industry, such as that based on exploiting molecular and macromolecular materials (MMM) for photonics and electronics, might evolve. CIG is working within the Cambridge IKC (CIKC) looking at the following questions –

  • How best can regional and national policy-makers support the growth of a new industry based on MMM for regional and national economic benefit?
  • Are existing regulations sufficient to positively support the development of MMM based products and production techniques? What regulatory options exist for the UK?



Design Scoreboard

The importance of design performance in the 21st century cannot be overstated. However, a key barrier to understanding the importance of design, the location of design activity and the role of design in the UK economy is reliable data in the design sector. There is a need for further work to effectively understand the value of design for both a firm and also a region or nation.


This project, being led by Dr James Moultrie, Design Management Group, is being supported by CIG.


New innovation metrics

How innovation is defined and measured has a significant impact on how government policy is developed. Current measures of innovation are biased towards the inputs of the national innovation system as these are easier to collect data for internationally.


This project is investigating new metrics of innovation which are focused on the outcomes, rather than inputs and outputs, of the national innovation system. It is hoped that such measures will lead to significant improvements in government interventions to support innovation.



Regenerative Medicine (REMEDI)

REMEDI was one of the Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre 'Grand Challenges', examining the growth of regenerative medicine as a science and demonstrating how it can be turned into profitable commercial practice. The project involved several universities and teaching hospitals in the UK, with CIG specifically investigating current and alternative policy frameworks for this new industry.


University level innovation policy

There is a growing expectation on universities to be an active and significant part of regional, national and global innovation systems. This was reflected in discussions on the relationship between academia and industry and the emergence of so called 'third stream' funding from the government.

In response to these pressures, how were universities in the UK responding? Specifically, were we seeing the emergence of explicit innovation policies at the level of the university? And for these universities, was having an explicit innovation policy at the level of the university increasing their impact on their regional economies and improving their ability to raise additional funds and engage in third stream activities?


This work, funded by the Cambridge MIT Institute, aimed to provide a clear picture of the institutional policy response to the dual pressures of the rising need for stronger revenues in universities and the expectation of third stream engagement.



Sainsbury Review: Technology Policy Alliance

The Centre for Industry and Government participated in a Technology Policy Alliance formed with the CBI, Design Council, EEF, NESTA and UNICO to provide policy recommendations to the Sainsbury Review of Science and Innovation.



High Value Manufacturing

The project created a report for the DTI and the CBI - who jointly funded the project - investigating the definition of High Value Manufacturing. The report layed out an initial framework for companies and policy-makers to analyse the complexities of modern manufacturing, and contributed to the understanding of manufacturing being taken forward by the Manufacturing Forum.


Download the High Value Manufacturing Summary Report

Download the High Value Manufacturing Full Report


Investigating the technology-based innovation gap for the United Kingdom

Innovation, and its importance for productivity improvements and growth, is well recognized by the UK government. However there was ongoing concern that the UK was not taking advantage of its core strengths in science and creativity. This report, commissioned by the Design Council reviewed the available evidence on innovation performance in the UK providing a framework for considering new policies.


Industrial Development in Trinidad and Tobago

Resource-rich emerging countries frequently suffer from asymmetric economic growth, with the resources sector overshadowing the manufacturing and other industrial sectors. CIG studied policy options for industrial development in the hydrocarbons-rich country of Trinidad and Tobago, examining the future role of manufacturing and providing possible development scenarios and their needs. The work was intended to be applicable to other economies in similar situations.


Current status of industrial technology capabilities in the Republic of Kazakhstan – towards developing a technology strategy

The IfM was approached by the government of Kazakhstan to conduct an audit of current industrial technological capabilities in the country, so that an appropriate national technology strategy could be designed. CIG supported the IfM wide team in developing the audit and initial recommendations. The resulting report highlighted the opportunities and gaps in the Kazakh industrial technology structure, as well as the enablers and barriers to progress identified by the companies surveyed.



Manufacturing Visions (MANVIS)

CIG acted as the coordinator for the international oversight committee for this Framework 6 project. The project developed new visions of manufacturing in Europe through a pan-EU Delphi process which involved approximately 20 countries.


Growth through High Value Manufacturing

This project focused on manufacturing in the East of England and investigated different models of manufacturing for companies. It developed a series of case studies of local companies, in order to identify best practice to inspire and inform potential manufacturing businesses about their choices on manufacturing strategy.


Innovation and Technology Transfer in the UK

A key concern for economies such as the UK is whether there is sufficient innovation to drive growth. This project is investigating the alignment between the practice of innovation in UK firms and the government's current innovation policy framework. As part of the project, a community of interested parties was brought together to create opportunities for discussion on how to enhance innovation support in the UK.



Value Creation and Capture

A common measure of the success of a company is value added, as shown in the Value Added Score Board produced by the DTI. However, does value added provided enough granularity for companies trying to make strategic decisions? This project investigated the concepts of value creation and value capture, to develop tools to help companies think about their future organizational structure and their target markets.



Strategic Manufacturing Study

When is production of strategic importance to a company? The recent interest in service outsourcing prompted the IfM to look at this question again, interviewing 50 UK companies and surveying 100 more on the key reasons why production is important to their companies.



There have been many Foresight exercises carried out around the world in the past decades. However, collecting, comparing, and analysing the information generated by these projects is very difficult. The Informan project developed a proof of principle system to collect Foresight results from five European countries relevant to manufacturing. The system is an online database of the results and is fully searchable, providing results at the level of single statements, in contrast to large reports on the future.






  • Livesey, F. (2011). Rationales for industrial policy based on industry maturity, Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade - Available here.


  • Bill Wicksteed, Experience from 16 years of support to Knowledge and Technology Transfer and Exchange projects by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, October 2010
    Download here
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin, Regulatory enablers and regulatory challenges for the development of tissue-engineered products in the EU, International Journal of Bio-medical materials and Engineering, Vol.20, No 3-4, 121-126, November 2010
  • P. Singh, L. Brévignon-Dodin and S.P. Dash, Exploratory assessment of the current EU regulatory framework for the development of advanced therapies, Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, Vol.16, No.4, 331-336, October 2010
  • Finbarr Livesey, "Rationales for industrial policy based on industry maturity", IfM Centre for Industry and Government Working Paper 2010/1. Download here
  • Future scenarios for the UK food and drink industry (Report, 10/09/2010). Download here
  • Value of food and drink to the UK manufacturing sector (Report, 5/07/2010). Download here
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin, P. Singh and S. Dash, Exploratory assessment on the current EU regulatory framework on the development of advanced therapies, Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, December 2010.
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin, Regulatory enablers and regulatory challenges for the development of tissue-engineered products in the EU, Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, October 2010.
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin. A review of the regulatory framework for regenerative medicine- based therapeutic products in the EU. Pôle Lorrain d'Ingénierie du Cartilage (PLIC) 4èmes Journées, Nancy, 4-5 Feb 2010.
  • Towards a practitioners’ perspective on standards, L. Brévignon-Dodin, CIG Working Paper 2010/2.


  • L. Brévignon-Dodin. Regulation as an enabler for emerging industries. OECD Conference on New Models of Innovation for Economic Growth and Sustainability, Paris, 12th-13th November.
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin, S. Dash and F. Livesey. Regulatory perspective on the emergence of the regenerative medicine industry. World Conference in Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig, 29th-31st October.
  • Regulation as an enabler for emerging industries Literature review, Laure Brévignon-Dodin, CIG. Download here.
  • Exploring regulatory and standards strategies to support the development of advanced photovoltaics, Laure Brévignon-Dodin. Download here.
  • Tianjiao Xia and Tim Minshall, Understanding Patterns and Promotion of Investments in New Firms in Emerging Science and Technology-Based Industries in the UK, High Technology Small Firms Conference, 28-29 May 2009, Manchester Business School.
  • Letizia Mortara, Jonathan Hughes, Pallant S. Ramsundar, Finbarr Livesey and David R. Probert, Proposed classification scheme for direct writing technologies, Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, 299-309. Download here.
  • Anke C. Plagnol, Emma Rowley, Paul Martin and Finbarr Livesey, Industry perceptions of barriers to commercialization of regenerative medicine products in the UK, Regenerative Medicine, Vol.4, No. 4, 549-559. Download here.
  • Moultrie J. and Livesey F. Initial indicators of international design capabilities. Download  here.
  • Livesey F. and Moultrie J., Company spending on design: exploratory survey of UK firms 2008. Download here.
  • Brévignon-Dodin L.and Singh, P. , ATMP in practice: toward a new industry landscape in tissue engineering, Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, Vol.1, No.15, 59-65, January 2009. Download abstract here.


  • Laure Brévignon-Dodin, Tissue-engineered products: conditions for a supportive regulatory environment, Stem Cells Europe Conference, Amsterdam, 1-3 September 2008.
  • Finbarr Livesey, Anke Zimmermann, Laure Brévignon-Dodin, Mike Gregory (2008) Enabling the emergence of the regenerative medicine industry in the UK, CIG Working Paper 2008/3.
  • Giorgos Georgopoulos (2008) Knowledge Dissemination from the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, CIG Working Paper 2008/2.
  • Finbarr Livesey and James Moultrie, (2008) Do trademarks and design registrations provide a better perspective on national innovation activity? DIME Conference on the Creative Industries and Intellectual Property, London May 22nd – 23rd 2008, download here.
  • Livesey, F., O’Sullivan, E., Hughes, J., Valli, R. and Minshall, T. (2008) A pilot study on the emergence of university-level innovation policy in the UK, CIG Working Paper 2008/1.
  • Moultrie J, Livesey T F, Malvido C, Beltagui A, Pawar K, Riedel J, (2008), Design funding in firms: a conceptual model of the role of design in industry, International Design Management Institute Education Conference: design thinking – new challenges for designers managers and organisations, Paris, 14-15 April 2008.
  • Malvido C, Moultrie J, Livesey T F, Pawar K, Riedel K, Beltagui A, Macbryde J, Martinez V, Evans S, Nixon W, Demian P, (2008), Towards a National Design Scoreboard: A model to enable comparison of performance between countries, PICMET: Technology management for a sustainable economy, Cape Town, 27-31 July 2008.
  • Moultrie J, Livesey T F, Malvido C, Riedel J, Beltagui A, Pawar K, Nixon B, MacBryde J, Martinez V, Demian P, Evans S, Developing a national design scoreboard, Design Research Society Conference: Undisciplined, Sheffield UK, 16-19 July 2008.
  • Moultrie J, Riedel J, Beltagui A, Malvido C, Livesey T F, Pawar K, Nixon B, MacBryde J, Demian P, Evans S, Martinez V, (2008), Exploratory study to capture design expenditure in firms, EIASM 15th International Product Development Management Conference, Hamburg, 29 June to 01 July 2008.
  • Beltagui A, Riedel J C K H, Pawar K S, Moultrie J, Malvido C, Livesey T F, Design Scoreboard: capturing design spending in firms, International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising, Lisbon, Portugal, 23-25 June 2008


  • Blowfield, M., Visser, W., and Livesey, F. (2007) “Sustainability Innovation: Mapping the Territory, University Cambridge Programme for Industry Research Paper Series: No. 2,” presented at the Corporate Responsibility Research Conference 2007, University of Leeds
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin and Livesey, F. (2007) What can be learnt from the Japanese regulatory approach to tissue engineered products?, Regenerative Medicine, Vol.2, No.6, 967-971.
  • R. P. Kulkarni, F. Livesey and L. Brévignon-Dodin, (2007) Will regulation determine the science agenda? A look at human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Regenerative Medicine, Vol.2, No.5, 839-844.
  • L. Brévignon-Dodin, (2007) The regulation of emerging healthcare technologies and the need for a renewed regulatory approach to gain public acceptance, 2nd Annual Cambridge Conference, Centre for Business Research (Judge Business School).


  • L. Brévignon-Dodin and Livesey, F. (2006) “Regulation of tissue-engineered products in the European Union: where are we heading?” Regenerative Medicine, vol 1. no. 5, pp. 709 714.
  • Livesey, F. (2006) Manufacturing clarity: in an era where boundaries between manufacturing and service companies are becoming increasingly hazy, quite how we define a manufacturing company is an important issue, Manufacturing Engineer, 85 (5). pp. 22-23. ISSN 0956-9944
  • Moultrie, J., Livesey, F., MacBryde, J., Martinez , V., Evans, S., Nixon, B., Pawar, K., Riedel, J. and Demian, P., (2006) ''Design Score Board: assessing national design performance'', Performance Measurement Association 2006 Conference.
  • Livesey, F., Minshall, T., and Moultrie, J. (2006) Investigating the technology-based innovation gap for the United Kingdom, report written for the Design Council.
  • Livesey, T.F, (2006) Defining High Value Manufacturing, report written for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Confederation of British Industry (CBI).
  • Fletcher, M. and Hughes, J. (2006) "Technology and policy challenges to be met for introducing holons into factory automation environments", presented at the IEEE EFTA 2006 Conference, 20-22 September, 2006, Prague.


  • Livesey, T.F, (2005) "Overseas views: International perspectives on the future of manufacturing", report written for the Manufacturing Visons project.
  • Livesey, T.F. and Shi, Y. (2005) "The Challenge for Going Global" , The Parliamentary Monitor Blue Skies, June 2005.


  • Assakul, P.F., Livesey, T.F., Gregory, M.J., and Hillier, W.E. (2004) "Structuring Futures Information: The Key to Informed Strategic Decisions", presented at The Second International Conference on Organisational Foresight Conference, 26th-28th August, Glasgow.
  • Assakul, P.F., Livesey, T.F., Gregory, M.J., and Hillier, W.E. (2004) "Futures Perspectives For Manufacturing" in Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Euroma Conference, 28th - 30th June, Fontainebleau, Vol. 2, pp. 53-63.
  • Lim, L., Gregory, M.J. (2004) "Singapore's biomedical science sector development strategy: Is it sustainable?" Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 352-362, June 2004.


  • Gregory, M., Hanson, P., van Bochen, A.J., and Livesey, F. (2003) Making the Most of Production, report written for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) supported by BAE Systems.
  • Livesey, F. (2003) Does London's manufacturing capture the value it creates?, commissioned theme paper for the London Production Industries Commission.
  • Livesey, F. (2003) Manufacturing services to rival business services, commissioned theme paper for the London Production Industries Commission.



Working Papers

These working papers are produced by the Centre for Industry and Government (CIG) at the Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge Engineering Department. They are available for discussion purposes only and should not be quoted without the author's permission. Comments and suggestions are welcome and should be directed to the first named author of each paper.


  • Can multinationality be measured using a value chain approach? Finbarr Livesey, CIG Working paper 2011/1., Download here.
  • Towards a practitioners’ perspective on standards, L. Brévignon-Dodin, CIG Working Paper 2010/2.
  • Rationales for industrial policy based on industry maturity, Finbarr Livesey, CIG Working Paper 2010/1, Download here.
  • Regulation as an enabler for emerging industries Literature review, Laure Brévignon-Dodin, CIG Working Paper 2009/2, Download here.
  • Exploring regulatory and standards strategies to support the development of advanced photovoltaics, Laure Brévignon-Dodin, CIG Working Paper 2009/1, Download here.
  • Enabling the emergence of the regenerative medicine industry in the UK,Finbarr Livesey, Anke Zimmermann, Laure Dodin, Mike Gregory, CIG Working Paper 2008/3, Download here.
  • Knowledge Dissemination from the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, Giorgos Georgopoulos, CIG Working Paper 2008/2, Download here.
  • A pilot study on the emergence of university-level innovation policy in the UK, Finbarr Livesey, Eoin O’Sullivan, Jonathan Hughes, Rob Valli and Tim Minshall, CIG Working Paper 2008/1, Download here.
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